Carbon capture and storage can permanently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. CCS has local and global benefits, including economic, environmental, and social gains.

FREMONT, CA: Environment and socio-economic impact of CSS (Carbon Capture and Storage) operation. CCS technologies pose environmental, economic, and societal concerns despite their primary purpose as climate mitigation measures. Significant reductions in carbon emissions require long-term funding sources and regulatory frameworks for transporting and storing CO2. For successful CCS interventions to be assessed, we must address the environmental, economic, and societal impacts comprehensively.

Environmental impact: An economically competitive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions attracts the interests of stakeholders and policymakers. CCS's economics must be understood technically and in terms of the costs associated with its operations.

Societal impact: CCS projects should consider societal acceptance when implementing new energy technologies. Informational provision and risk-benefit perceptions will likely influence public acceptance. Concerns about the sequestration technology and CO2 leakage may lead to public perception of risks associated with CCS.

Hydrogen energy supply chain: When Carbon Net is in place, it provides a viable CCS solution for the commercial phase of the world-class Hydrogen Energy Supply Chain project. With the HESC project, mass quantities of hydrogen will be transported across open waters for the first time, and innovative technologies will be demonstrated for the first time in the world.

Using fossil fuels for electricity generation can reduce greenhouse gas emissions through CCS, a viable climate change mitigation measure. Water consumption has increased by 45 to 90 percent in CCS-equipped power plants. A literature review of CCS technologies is presented in this paper, which focuses primarily on the potential effects that CCS may have on water systems.

Communication of CCS impacts is essential to educate legislators, stakeholders, environmentalists, and the general public about its potential and limitations. It is complex to construct energy-water nexus models. Still, they will provide a promising way to elucidate CCS as one of several key drivers affecting water demand for electricity, including population growth, cooling technology, fuel portfolios, and electricity trade, in future research.