The deployment of large-scale organic waste biorefineries necessitates a thorough understanding of waste properties, markets for biorefinery products, and methods for integrating processes with industrial processes.

FREMONT, CA: Global energy demand will be approximately 8 percent smaller than today, in 2050. This is due to 90 percent of energy generation emanating from renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biomass, wind, tide, solar, and geothermal. Fossil fuels should be replaced with low-carbon renewable energy alternatives such as bioenergy.

 Biorefineries as alternatives to petroleum refineries have gained prominence due to their capacity to create biofuels with a net-zero CO2 emission balance and similar attributes to fossil fuels. Researchers in academia and industry have become increasingly interested in second-generation biorefineries that utilize biomass residues and municipal garbage due to their ability to add value to waste material and mitigate the dangers associated with employing virgin biomass.

The conversion of various biomass wastes into biofuels due to the variety of biowastes, most research papers have defined waste biorefineries depending on the kind of feedstock handled; for instance, agriculture waste, municipal solid waste, and organic waste biorefineries. Biorefineries employing a single feedstock and conversion technology face obstacles such as a restricted feedstock supply and heterogeneity, which affect the biorefinery's economic recovery. Many academics have advocated for using integrated biorefinery models that integrate several conversion processes to improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness while simultaneously adding value to multiple feedstocks.

With the wide variety of biomass sources, conversion processes, platforms, and products involved, integrated biorefineries still need to be developed systematically despite their technological and economic benefits. Each integrated biorefinery idea has a distinct output efficiency and process layout. The integration approaches are suitable for integrating biorefinery systems in the total chain by examining the increase of facility capacity by combining multiple platforms, exchanging wastes and products with other industries, applying more efficient biomass conversion processes, providing an ecosystem, and optimizing the biomass supply chain on a broader scale.

To standardize the literature's expertise, the researchers define system boundaries, integration principles, and integration methodologies in total chain integration. The researchers meticulously quantify the life cycle analysis outcomes based on waste characteristics, and the framework provides more adaptable modeling and technology selection for life cycle assessments. While the impact of waste characteristics on individual conversion methods investigates, there needs to be a review of the combination of several technologies. For standardizing the establishment of integrated biorefineries, it is necessary to comprehend the interaction between the varying qualities of biomass waste and the various conversion processes.