The biofules generated from biomass will help to reduce the utilization of traditional fossil fuels and other livestock.

FREMONT, CA: The bio-based feedstock consist of agriculture and forestry by-products, municipal wastes and algae biomass, and food crops. These feedstock are treated as an energy source that can replace traditional fossil fuels and other chemical feedstock. Hyperaccumulator biomass is a particular type of lignocellulosic biomass that has substances that are rich in carbon. This biomass is utilized for phytoremediation of the soil that is heavily contaminated by metal. However, this type of biomass has fascinated researchers because of efficient reutilization and works as reasonable disposal.

However, with the present circumstances, it is considered that these hyperaccumulator wastes must be efficiently managed and conversed into a series and high-value fuels with accurate procedures as soon as possible. In the meantime, it is also necessary to treat the massive amount of this dangerous biomass so that it does not develop a secondary contamination risk for the environment. It is required to generate an effective, dependent, and environment-friendly technology that will help to use the biomass waste in proper ways.

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Another promising thermo-chemical procedure that can transform the organic matter in useful biofuels and chemicals is hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). It uses water or other solvent ass the working medium at mild reaction condition. This technology also has various advantages like high product quality, benign reaction condition, and better quality product. Under the supercritical state, with the help of multiple complicated chemical reactions, the procedure transforms the biomass feedstock into four types of products. These four types of products are given below,

• Energy-dense crude oil and it has a higher heating value (HHV). The value can reach up to 35-40 MJ kg.

• Biochar, this product can be utilized as the solid fuel, catalyst support, or adsorbent.

•  Biogas, this gas consists of methane and combustible hydrogen.

• Nutrient-rich aqueous products

During the process of HTL, the decomposition of the organic substance in biomass can release heavy metals in the liquid phase and their successive transformation in stable solid-phase fractions because of the changes in the physical property of the water. Therefore, benefits like these make HTL a prominent technology that can be utilized while treating the harmful biomass with the specific value from the point of energy exploration and environmental protection.

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