The energy storage systems are using new advanced methods to store energy to offer more when the demand is high.

FREMONT, CA: The initial method to store potential energy that could then be turned into electricity was to store water. For electrical systems, pumped-storage hydroelectric plants are beneficial as they collect energy when demand is less and start giving the stored energy once demand rises.

Demand changes are not always readily predictable, and rapid electrical systems changes may cause problems. In addition, new legislation and methods of control are needed for the steady growth of renewable energy generators.

The Main Types of Energy Storage Systems

Companies can summarize the significant categories of ESS (energy storage system) as below:

Potential Energy Storage (Hydroelectric Pumping) 

Especially in higher power applications, it is the most widely used ESS, and it contains moving water from a lower reservoir (in altitude) to a higher one. When the energy demand is less, it helps store potential energy and then release the water from the top reservoir to produce electricity when the energy demand is more significant. This sort of ESS includes the installation of unique geographic features.

Electrochemical Energy Storage (Batteries)

The chemical reactions related to the elements utilized to create the battery are the basis of this type of storage device. The typical battery consists of cells with two electrodes and an electrolyte (anode and cathode). Inside the battery, chemical reactions offer the electromotive force necessary for electric current flow.

Mechanical Energy Storage (Flywheels, CAES)

The ESS group is ideal for low-to-medium power applications (from ten kW up to a few MW). However, CAES (compressed-air energy storage) stores energy by compressing air into tanks, a flywheel stores kinetic energy and then transforms it into electricity.

Electrostatic Energy Storage (Capacitors, Supercapacitors)

Especially in electronic devices or for electric mobility applications, this category is trendy. It helps by conserving energy in a condenser made of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric with an electrostatic charge. Supercapacitors are developed capacitors that, compared to volume or mass, can hold substantially more energy.

The most promising energy storage system is the electrochemical category due to simpler installation, low construction time, and the extensive range of potential applications. Compared to other types of energy storage systems, it can be used both for high-power and high-energy applications, is very compact, and can be combined with existing power plants.