Lithium-ion batteries tend to have much higher energy densities relative to other battery solutions and dominate a majority of the global demand for grid-side energy storage.

FREMONT, CA: With so many various options of large-scale energy storage technologies to choose from, how does one pick the right one? On top of that, how do they manage to pair the preferred technologies with the most successful market model? The answer is lithium-ion batteries. Despite the cost problems and concerns that lithium-ion batteries pose in stationary energy storage applications, they remain the most economically viable energy storage option. This is partially because the Electric Vehicle (EV) market is overwhelmingly pushing research and development around this technology.

Lithium-ion batteries tend to have much higher energy densities relative to other battery solutions and dominate a majority of the global demand for grid-side energy storage. Innovations, such as substituting the graphite anode with new materials, can improve the battery performance resulting in a much more competitive long-term storage option.

Alternative Storage Systems in The Market

However, other storage options with distinct features exist in the market, like lead-acid batteries and flow batteries. While less common than lithium-ion batteries, due to their comparatively low energy densities and long-life cycles, flow batteries are used in various energy storage ventures, which makes them best suited for continuous power supply. Another storage choice with separate but similarly appealing features is hydrogen fuel cells that produce electricity by mixing hydrogen and oxygen. They are powerful, have high energy densities, and emit zero emissions, making this technology suitable for long-term use.

They are efficient, have high energy densities, and emit zero emissions, making this system suitable in the form of Power-to-X technology for long-term energy storage and sector coupling. While they remain costly, for many vital facilities, such as data centers, hydrogen fuel cells are used as primary and backup power. Continued research and development in the area of hydrogen storage would fuel this technology's more commercial feasibility and, with it, much more appealing market models.